1. "The Hacker's Dictionary, version 4.3.0,", April 30, 2001,

  2. Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011), 61.

  3. Isaacson, Steve Jobs, 59.

  4. Sam Williams, Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software (Sebastolpol, California: O'Reilly Media),

  5. Williams, Free as in Freedom,

  6. "Usage statistics and market share of Unix for websites," W3Techs,

  7. "September 2012 Web Server Survey," Netcraft,

  8. "Browser Statistics," W3Schools,

  9. The online version of _Mind Hacking _is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. For more information, see

  10. Tim Ferriss, The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman (New York City: Crown Publishing Group, 2010), 484-489.

  11. Daniel Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us (New York City: Riverhead Hardcover, 2009).

  12. Chris Hardwick, The Nerdist Way: How to Reach the Next Level (In Real Life) (New York City: Penguin Publishing, 2011).

  13. Steven Leckart, "The Hackathon Is On: Pitching and Programming the Next Killer App," Wired, March 2012.

  14. Stephen Lepore & Joshua Smyth, "The Writing Cure: How Expressive Writing Promotes Health and Emotional Well-Being" (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2002).

  15. S. Spera, E. Buhrfeind, & J.W. Pennebaker, "Expressive writing and coping with job loss," Academy of Management Journal, Volume 3 (1994): 722-733. Thanks to Richard Wiseman's 59 Seconds: Change Your Life in Under a Minute (New York: Anchor, 2010) for the finding.

  16. Amy Shira Teitel, "The Cost of Curiosity,", September 28, 2012,

  17. Joe Palca, "Crazy Smart: When A Rocker Designs A Mars Lander," NPR, August 3, 2012,

  18. "Curiosity's Seven Minutes of Terror," NASA, June 22, 2012,

  19. Guy Webster and Dwayne Browne, "NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Marks First Martian Year," NASA, June 23, 2014,

  20. "Mars Science Laboratory: Mission Science Goals,", August 21, 2012,

  21. Susan Blackmore, Consciousness: An Introduction. (London: Routledge, 2010). Blackmore literally wrote the book on consciousness, and her exercises are the inspiration for the Mind Games in this book. The purpose of Blackmore's exercises is to show you the illusory nature of the mind, and I highly recommend her book for advanced mind hackers.

  22. Sylvia Nasar, "The sum of a man," The Guardian, March 25, 2002,

  23. Editor Tore Frängsmyr, Les Prix Nobel: The Nobel Prizes 1994 (Stockholm: Nobel Foundation, 1994),

  24. "Glimpsing Inside a Beautiful Mind,", April 10, 2005,

  25. Sylvia Nasar, A Beautiful Mind: A Biography of John Forbes Nash, Jr., Winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, 1994 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998).

  26. John Milnor, "John Nash and the Beautiful Mind," Notices of the American Mathematical Society, Volume 45, Number 10 (1998): 1329.

  27. Wendy Hasenkamp and Lawrence W. Barsalou, "Effects of Meditation Experience on Functional Connectivity of Distributed Brain Networks," Front. Hum. Neurosci. (March 1, 2012).

  28. Daniel Goleman, "Excerising The Mind To Treat Attention Deficits," New York Times, May 12, 2014,

  29. See Douglas Hofstadter's excellent book I Am a Strange Loop (New York: Basic Books, 2007) for a fascinating explanation of the mind-bending work of mathematician Kurt Gödel.

  30. Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck, The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002).

  31. Robert Rogers and Stephen Monsell, "The Costs of a Predictable Switch between Simple Cognitive Tasks," Journal of Experimental Psychology: General Volume 124, Number 2 (1995): 207-231.

  32. Joshua S. Rubinstein, David E. Meyer, and Jeffrey E. Evans, "Executive Control of Cognitive Processes in Task Switching," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance Volume 27, Number 4 (2001): 763-797.

  33. Edward M. Hallowell, Crazy Busy: Overstretched, Overbooked, and About to Snap! Strategies for Handling Your Fast-Paced Life (New York: Ballantine Books, 2007).

  34. Bill Chappell, "Stanford Professor Who Sounded Alert On Multitasking Has Died," NPR, November 7, 2013, Emphasis mine.

  35. Soren Gordhamer, Wisdom 2.0: Ancient Secrets for the Creative and Constantly Connected (New York: HarperOne, 2009).

  36. "ADHD Data and Statistics," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, November 13, 2013,

  37. "Frequent Cell Phone Use Linked to Anxiety, Lower Grades and Reduced Happiness in Students, Kent State Research Shows," Kent State University, December 6, 2013,

  38. "Turn off Your Smart Phone to Beat Stress," The British Psychological Society, December 1, 2012,

  39. William James, The Principles of Psychology (New York: H. Holt and Company, 1890), chapter 11.

  40. H. Pashler; J. Jonston; E. Ruthruff, "Attention and Performance." Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52 (2001): 629–651.

  41. Benedict Carey, "Remembering, as an Extreme Sport," New York Times, May 19, 2014,

  42. Tim Wu, "How Today's Computers Weaken Our Brain," The New Yorker, September 9, 2013,

  43. B.V Zeigarnik, "Uber das Behalten von erledigten und unerledigten Handlungen [The retention of completed and uncompleted activities]," Psyhologische Forschung 9 (1927):1-85.

  44. Isaacson, Steve Jobs, p. 39.

  45. Amishi P. Jha, Jason Krompinger, and Michael J. Baime, "Mindfulness Training Modifies Subsystems of Attention." Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience Volume 7, Number 2 (2007): 109-119.

  46. Antoine Lutz, Heleen A. Slagter, John D. Dunne, and Richard J. Davidson, "Attention Regulation and Monitoring in Meditation." Trends in Cognitive Sciences Volume 12, Number 4 (2008): 163-169.

  47. Richard J. Davidson, Jon Kabat-Zinn, Jessica Schumacher, Melissa Rosenkranz, Daniel Muller, Saki F. Santorelli, Ferris Urbanowski, Anne Harrington, Katherine Bonus, and John F. Sheridan, "Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation." Psychosomatic Medicine Volume 65, Number 4 (2003): 564-570.

  48. Sean Barnes, Kirk Warren Brown, Elizabeth Krusemark, W. Keith Campbell, and Ronald D. Rogge, "The Role of Mindfulness in Romantic Relationship Satisfaction and Reponses to Relationship Stress." J Marital Fam Ther 33(4) (2007 Oct): 482-500.

  49. Davidson et. al., "Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation," 564-570.

  50. Charles Duhigg, The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business (New York: Random House, 2012).

  51. Daniel Ingram, Mastering the Core Teachings of the Buddha (London: Aeon Books, 2008). I am indebted to Ingram for many of the concentration variations in this chapter. I highly recommend his book as a technical manual for those looking to master higher levels of concentration.

  52. Elizabeth Gilbert, Eat Pray Love: One Woman's Search for Everything Across Italy, India and Indonesia (New York City: Penguin, 2006).

  53. Michael R. Williams, A History of Computing Technology (New York: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1997), 248-251.

  54. Thomas P. Hughes, American Genesis: A History of the American Genius for Invention (New York:Penguin Books, 1989), 75.

  55. Simson Garfinkel, "History's Worst Software Bugs," Wired, November 2005.

  56. Sharron Ann Danis, "Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper," February 16, 1997, Hopper also coined the phrase, "It is much easier to apologize than to get permission," the motto of any young go-getter in a risk-averse environment.

  57. William Mass and Andrew Robertson, "From Textiles to Automobiles: Mechanical and Organizational Innovation in the Toyoda Enterprises, 1895-1933," Business and Economic History, 25: 2 (1996): 1-35.

  58. Gregory Wallace, "Toyota Has Best Value: Consumer Reports," CNN Money, December 18, 2014:

  59. David Burns, The Feeling Good Handbook (New York: Plume, 1999), 4-7.

  60. Napoleon Hill, Think and Grow Rich (New York City: Tarcher, 2005), 249-255.

  61. David Bodanis, "Einstein The Nobody," NASA, October 15, 2005,

  62. A. S. Eddington, The Nature of the Physical World (Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2005), 276-81.

  63. Andy Hertzfeld, "Reality Distortion Field," Folklore, February 1981,

  64. Vindu Goel, "Mark Zuckerberg Says Secret of His Success Is Making Lots of Mistakes," International New York Times, December 11, 2014,

  65. Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (London: Pan Books, 1979) . Changed "chemist's" to "drugstore" for American readers.

  66. Bruce Grierson, "What if Age Is Nothing but a Mind-Set?" New York Times, October 22, 2014,

  67. Robert and Michele Root-Bernstein, Sparks of Genius: The Thirteen Thinking Tools of the World's Most Creative People (Boston: Mariner Books, 2001), 22.

  68. Laura King, "The Health Benefits of Writing about Life Goals," Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27 (2001): 798-807.

  69. Chad Burton and Laura King, "The Health Benefits of Writing about Intensely Positive Experiences," Journal of Research in Personality 2:38 (April 30, 2004): 150-163.

  70. Brad Stone, The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2013), 76.

  71. Thank you to Tim Ferriss's excellent book The 4-Hour Workweek (New York: Harmony, 2007) for the inspiration for these exercises, which Tim calls "Dreamlining."

  72. Ray Dalio, Principles (Westport, Connecticut: Bridgewater Associates, 2011), 14. Dalio has made this excellent book available online for free at

  73. Walter Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin: An American Life (New York:Simon & Schuster, 2004), 442.

  74. Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (London: J. Parson's,1791), 38.

  75. Jonathan Schultz, "Speed Camera Lottery Wins VW Fun Theory Contest," New York Times, November 30, 2010,

  76. Ed Nather, "The Story of Mel, A Real Programmer," USENET, May 21, 1983,

  77. R. A. Emmons and M.E. McCullough, "Counting Blessings Versus Burdens: An Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Daily Life." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 (2003), 377-38.

  78. M. Scott Peck, The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace (New York: Touchstone, 1998), 220.

  79. "Thomas Edison," National Park Service,

  80. Randall Stross, The Wizard of Menlo Park: How Thomas Alva Edison Invented the Modern World (New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2008), 154.

  81. "Obesity and Overweight Fact Sheet," World Health Organization, January 2015,

  82. "Adult Obesity Facts", Center for Disease Control and Prevention, September 9, 2014,

  83. Kaiser Permanente, "Keeping a Food Diary Doubles Diet Weight Loss, Study Suggests," ScienceDaily, July 8, 2008,

  84. Jonah Lehrer, Imagine: How Creativity Works (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2012).

  85. Richard R. Peabody was not trained as a medical doctor, but his reputation for helping so many alcoholics earned him the nickname "Dr. Peabody."

  86. Richard R. Peabody, The Common Sense of Drinking (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1935), Chapter 5.

  87. Michael E. Gerber, The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and What to Do About It (New York: Harper Collins, 2004).

  88. Scott Ambler, "Just Barely Good Enough Models and Documents: An Agile Best Practice," Agile Modeling,

  89. Allen B. Downey, personal interview, November 7, 2014.

  90. Allen B. Downey, "Free Books, Why Not?" Green Tea Press,

  91. Allen B. Downey, "The Textbook Manifesto," Green Tea Press, January 6, 2010,

  92. Richard Wiseman, 59 Seconds: Change Your Life in Under a Minute (New York: Anchor, 2010), 22.

  93. "Dilbert," Universal Uclick,

  94. "Cartoonist Scott Adams," PBS, November 6, 2013,

  95. Scott Adams, The Dilbert Future: Thriving on Business Stupidity in the 21st Century (New York: HarperBusiness, 1998), 246-253. Also see Scott Adams, How to Fail at Everything and Still Win Big: Kind of the Story of My Life (New York: Portfolio, 2014), 154-157 and 224-229. Also see Scott Adams, "Dilbert 2.0," Scott Adams Blog, October 13, 2008,

  96. Ibid.

  97. Ibid.

  98. "Jim Carrey," IMDB,

  99. Brad Isaac, "Jerry Seinfeld's Productivity Secret," Lifehacker, July 24, 2007,

  100. F. Strack, L.L. Martin, and S. Stepper, "Inhibiting and Facilitating Conditions of the Human Smile: A Nonobtrusive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54 (1988), 768-777. Thanks to Richard Wiseman's 59 Seconds: Change Your Life in Under a Minute (New York: Anchor, 2010) for this and the following study.

  101. S. Schnall and J.D Laird, "Keep Smiling: Enduring Effects of Facial Expressions and Postures of Emotional Experience," Cognition and Emotion, 17 (2003): 787-797.

  102. Dr. Joan Borysenko, Minding the Body, Mending the Mind (Cambridge, Massachusetts: De Capo Press, 2007), 39.

  103. "List of Nikola Tesla Patents," Wikipedia, January 25, 2015,

  104. Charles Coulston Gillispie, "Tesla, Nikola," Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1975).

  105. Nikola Tesla, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy," Century Illustrated Magazine, June 1900,

  106. Leslie E. Gilliams, "Tesla's Plan of Electrically Treating Schoolchildren," Popular Electricity Magazine, 1912,

  107. "Beam to Kill Army at 200 Miles, Tesla's Claim on 78th Birthday," New York Times, July 11, 1934.

  108. David Hatcher Childress, The Fantastic Inventions of Nikola Tesla (Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2014), 276.

  109. Tesla, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy."

  110. "Tesla," PBS,

  111. Thomas Edison: Life of an Electrifying Man (Biographiq, 2008), 23.

  112. Anderson, 1983; Anderson & Sechler, 1986; Carroll, 1978; Gregory, Cialdini, & Carpenter, 1982; Hirt & Sherman, 1985; Sherman, Skov, Hervitz, & Stock, 1981; Koehler, 1991; Pham & Taylor, 1999.

  113. Shelley E. Taylor, Lien B. Pham, Inna D. Rivkin, and David A. Armor, "Harnessing the Imagination: Mental Simulation, Self-Regulation, and Coping," American Psychologist 53: 4 (1998): 429-439.

  114. Jack Nicklaus, Golf My Way (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974), 79.

  115. Alyssa Roenigk, "Lotus Pose on Two," ESPN The Magazine, August 21, 2013,

  116. Michael Gervais, Ph.D.,

  117. Sir John Hargrave, "How the Seattle Seahawks Won the Super Bowl with Mindfulness," Wisdom 2.0, February 2013,

  118. Gabriele Oettingen, Caterina Bulgarella, Marlone Henderson, and Peter M. Gollwitzer, "The Self-Regulation of Goal Pursuit," Motivation and Emotion in Social Contexts: Jack Brehm's Influence on Contemporary Psychological Thought (2004): 225-244.

  119. Wiseman, 59 Seconds, 96.

  120. T. Pyszczynski, K. Holt, and J. Greenberg, "Depression, Self-Focused Attention, and Expectancies for Positive and Negative Future Life Events for Self and Others," J Pers Soc Psychol 52: 5 (1987): 994-1001.

  121. L. Libby, E. Shaeffer, R. Eibach, and J. Slemmer, "Picture Yourself at the Polls: Visual Perspective in Mental Imagery Affects Self-Perception and Behavior,"Psychol Sci 3 (March 18, 2007): 199-203.

  122. Marshall Poe, "The Hive," The Atlantic Monthly, September 2006,

  123. The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir," Slashdot, April 18, 2005,

  124. Ibid.

  125. "Pixar Campus," All About Steve Jobs,

  126. Jonah Lehrer, "The Steve Jobs Approach To Teamwork," Wired, October 10, 2011,

  127. See for an aggregate Rotten Tomatoes ranking from 2000-2013, compared with average Rotten Tomatoes ranking of Pixar films taken from

  128. Jonah Lehrer, Imagine: How Creativity Works, 152.

  129. Jonah Lehrer, Imagine: How Creativity Works, 196.

  130. Steve Wozniak, iWoz (W.W. Norton & Company, 2006), 150.

  131. Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000).

  132. Jonah Lehrer, Imagine: How Creativity Works, p. 222.

  133. Steven Johnson, Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation (New York City: Riverhead Trade, 2011), 58. Italics mine.

  134. Gail Matthews, "Goals Research Summary," Dominican University,

  135. Charles C. Miller Memorial Apicultural Library WU, Enquire Within Upon Everything (London: Houlston and Sons, 1903),

  136. Sir Tim Berners-Lee, "A Brief History of the Web," World Wide Web Consortium, (ca. 1993/1994),

  137. Sir Tim Berners-Lee, "Frequently Asked Questions by the Press," W3,

  138. Sir Tim Berners-Lee, "Answers for Young People," World Wide Web Consortium,

  139. "Biography and Video Interview of Timothy Berners-Lee at Academy of Achievement,",

  140. Roy Baumaeister and John Tierney, Willpower: Discovering the Greatest Human Strength (New York City: Penguin, 2012), 139-140.

  141. Richard Wiseman, 59 Seconds, 85.

  142. "The Game That Can Add 10 Years to Your Life,", January 6, 2014,

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